Ableism- “A system of superiority and discrimination that provides or denies resources, agency, and dignity based on one’s abilities (mental/intellectual, emotional, and/or physical.) Ableism depends on a binary, and benefits able-bodied people at the expense of disabled people. Like other forms of oppression, ableism operates on individual, institutional and cultural levels.” (The Anti-Violence Project Glossary)
Aboriginal- See Indigenous.
Advocate- Someone who actively supports someone else’s interests or the interests of a group of people.
Accommodation- “An adjustment made to policies, programs and/or practices to enable individuals to benefit from and participate in the provision of services equally and perform to the best of their ability.” (The 519’s Glossary of Terms)
Ageism- “The institutional, cultural and individual set of practices and beliefs which assign differential value to people according to their age. Age is a protected characteristic in the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act.” (Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission Race Relations, Equity & Inclusion Division; Human Rights in the Workplace Glossary of Terms)
Age of consent or age of protection- In Canada, the age at which a young person can legally consent to sexual activity is 16. This is known as the “age of consent” or “age of protection”. There are additional considerations around the age of consent, including “close in age” or “peer group” exceptions, that can be found here: http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/other-autre/clp/faq.html
Ally- “A person who works to end a form of oppression that gives them privilege(s). Allies listen to, and are guided by, communities and individuals affected by oppression.” (The 519’s Glossary of Terms)
Anti-semitism- “Latent or overt hostility or hatred directed towards individual Jews or the Jewish people (not to all Semitic peoples), leading to social, economic, institutional, religious, cultural or political discrimination. Anti-Semitism has also been expressed through individual acts of violence, vandalism, the organized destruction of entire communities (pogroms) and genocide.” (Human Rights in the Workplace Glossary of Terms, Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission Race Relations, Equity & Inclusion Division). Religion is a protected characteristic under the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act.
Autonomy- The freedom to make decisions without outside interference.
Binary- Opposing or mutually exclusive.
Body-shaming- The shaming of a person based on the size and shape of their body, what they wear, how much of their body they show, etc. It is often expressed as fat-shaming: criticizing or mocking people who are fat, overweight, or plus-sized. These types of shaming are most often directed at women and femmes and specifically racialized women and femmes, and women and femmes with dis/abilities.
Cede- To give up, surrender, release, or transfer.
Child pornography- Child pornography is any material that shows a person or persons under 18 years of age engaging in sexual activity or “a young person's sexual organ or anal region for a sexual purpose”. Child pornography is also any material that encourages others to sexually assault a child. This includes when youth share photos or videos of themselves or other youth that are sexual in nature. (Criminal Code, Government of Canada)
Circle of care (or community care)- Creating a circle of care means listening to the needs of, and caring for, each other. It shifts the responsibility of care from the individual and centres the importance of caring for each other in community.
Cisgender (or cis)- Someone whose gender identity matches the sex and/or gender they were assigned at birth.
Cisexism- “A system of oppression that considers cis people to be superior to trans people. It includes harmful beliefs that it is ‘normal’ to be cis and ‘abnormal’ to be trans.” (The 519’s Glossary of Terms)
Classism- “A hierarchical system that provides or denies resources, agency, and dignity based on one’s, or one’s perceived, socioeconomic class (poor/working class, middle/upper class, upper class, etc.).” (The Anti-Violence Project Glossary)
Coercion- Coercion is when someone tries to change a “no”, “maybe”, “I don’t know” or “I don’t feel like it” (for example) into a “yes”. Coercion can involve the use of authority, psychological pressure, intimidation, bribery, threats, or physical force.
Colonization- “Colonization can be defined as some form of invasion, dispossession and subjugation of a peoples. The invasion need not be military; it can begin—or continue—as geographical intrusion in the form of agricultural, urban or industrial encroachments. The result of such incursion is the dispossession of vast amounts of lands from the original inhabitants. This is often legalized after the fact.” (Colonization and Racism by Emma LaRocque, PhD, National Film Board)
Conflate- To merge two concepts.
Consent- A voluntary agreement to engage in an activity.
Cultural competency- An awareness of and respect for marginalized identities and communities as well as services that are tailored to address the needs of these people and communities.
Cultural genocide- The “destruction of those structures and practices that allow the group to continue as a group. States that engage in cultural genocide set out to destroy the political and social institutions of the targeted group. Land is seized, and populations are forcibly transferred and their movement is restricted. Languages are banned. Spiritual leaders are persecuted, spiritual practices are forbidden, and objects of spiritual value are confiscated and destroyed ... Families are disrupted to prevent the transmission of cultural values and identity from one generation to the next.” (The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada)
Cybermisogyny- “The term ‘cyber misogyny’ encapsulates the diverse forms of gendered hatred, harassment, and abusive behaviour directed towards women and girls online. It offers a more nuanced way of describing behaviours often lumped into the catch-all term ‘cyberbullying’ in mainstream discourse, a term which tends to erase the sexist, racist, homophobic, transphobic, and otherwise discriminatory nature of the behaviour and ignores the context of power and marginalization in which it occurs.” (#CyberMisogyny report, West Coast LEAF)
Cybermisogyny can also include online stalking, hate speech, doxxing (exposing someone’s personal information) rape and death threats.
Cyberviolence- Cyberviolence is the use of technology and/or social media to harm another person. Cyberviolence can manifest in a number of ways including unwanted sexts, non-consensual sharing of sexual images of another person, and revenge porn. It is illegal to share “intimate images of a person” without their consent, regardless of age. Cyberviolence may also be called cyberbullying or cybermisogyny.
Dehumanize- “The process of depriving a person or group of positive human qualities.” (The Oxford English Dictionary)
Dichotomy- Two opposing concepts.
Dispossession- The act of taking someone’s land, property, or possessions.
Dissociation- A person’s involuntary disconnection from the present moment and surroundings and their thoughts and emotions, etc. Dissociation is a survival/trauma response.
Double standard- When a rule is unfairly applied to different people or groups.
Elder (Indigenous)- “Elder is generally considered to be any person regarded or chosen by an Aboriginal nation to be the keeper and teacher of its oral tradition and knowledge, and have their own unique strengths and talents.” (Creating an Inclusive School Climate for Aboriginal Learners, Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward Island)
Empower- To use one’s capacity to act for oneself or to create the conditions in which a person or group can act for themselves.
Entitled- To feel that you have a right to something, are inherently deserving of something, or are owed something.
Exploitative- Treating an individual or group poorly in order to benefit.
Femme- Identifying and/or presenting as feminine regardless of gender.
Feminism- “A diverse array of activist movements which all share the common goal of challenging traditional sexism (i.e., the assumption that femaleness/femininity is inferior to, or less legitimate than, maleness/masculinity). Some strands of feminism focus solely on traditional sexism and envision themselves as a “women’s liberation” or “women’s rights” movement. Others strands of feminism are more broadly focused on challenging multiple (or all) forms of sexism, and thus are concerned with women as well as gender and sexual minorities. Still other strands recognize intersectionality, and thus argue that feminism should be concerned with challenging all forms of marginalization rather than just sexism.” (Julia’s trans, gender, sexuality, & activism glossary!, Julia Serano)
Gender- “A culturally specific set of characteristics that identify the social behaviour of individuals, the relationship between them, the way this relationship is socially constructed, and the way individuals are treated or viewed.” (Glossary and Definitions, Avalon Sexual Assault Centre)
Gender binary- “A social system whereby people are thought to have either one of two genders: ‘man’ or ‘woman.’ These genders are expected to correspond to birth sex: male or female. In the gender binary system, there is no room for living between genders or for transcending the gender binary. The gender binary system is rigid and restrictive for many people whose sex assigned at birth does not match up with their gender, or whose gender is fluid and not fixed.” (The 519’s Glossary of Terms)
Gender identity - “A person's internal, deeply held sense of their gender.” (GLAAD Media Reference Guide Tenth Edition)
Gender identity is a protected characteristic under the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act.
Gender expression- The external expression of a person’s gender, which can be communicated via pronouns, clothes, hair, behaviour, voice, etc. Gender Expression is a protected characteristic under the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act.
Gender norms- A widely held set of broad generalizations about how people should act based on their gender.
Genderqueer and gender non-conforming- Gender identities that transcend, challenge, or complicate the gender binary.
Grounding techniques- Grounding techniques connect a person to the present moment and can help with trauma responses including flashbacks or dissociation.
Heteronormative- A frame of reference that positions heterosexuality as the default and assumes that a man/woman romantic or sexual pairing is the norm.
Hypersexualize- To impose a heightened sense of and/or inappropriate sexuality on someone without their consent.
Hypervigilance- Refers to an enhanced or heightened awareness of one’s surroundings and increased sensitivity to any potential threats, often caused by traumatic events.
Im/migrant- A combination of the words immigrant and migrant, which includes those who do and do not have Permanent Resident status.
Incest- When a person engages in sexual activity with someone whom they know to be a blood relations, including a parent, child, sibling, grandparent, or grandchild. Incest is illegal in Canada.
Indian Status - “A person’s legal status as an Indian, and specifically his or her status as defined by the Indian Act. It is not necessarily the same thing as status as an Indian under the Canadian constitution or as status based on descent or “race”. The Indian Act’s complex rules on status are interpreted and applied by the registrar of Indian membership in Ottawa. Everyone who has Indian status is listed in the indian register. The legal term for these people is Registered Indian, but they are also informally called Status Indians…” (Glossary of Terms Used in Aboriginal Historical Research, Unama’ki College)
Indigenous- Throughout this training we use the term Indigenous to refer to all first peoples of Turtle Island (North America). The term Indigenous includes both status and non-status people. The words used to describe the first peoples of this land have evolved over the years. It is important, however, to remember that terms such as Aboriginal and Indigenous have been imposed on First Nations people.
Infantilized- To be viewed and/or treated like a child.
Implicitly- To express something indirectly.
Intergenerational (or historic) trauma- Caused by “multigenerational, cumulative, and chronic trauma, injustices, and oppression. The effects of trauma can reverberate through individuals, families, communities and entire populations, resulting in a legacy of physical, psychological, and economic disparities that persist across generations.” (Aboriginal Peoples and Historic Trauma, National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health)
Can result from colonization, cultural genocide (such as residential schools), war and genocide, racism, and other forms of systemic oppression (for example).
Intersectionality- The word intersectionality was introduced by scholar and activist Kimberlé Crenshaw to describe how systems of power interact to oppress people with multiple marginalized identities, specifically black women.
Islamophobia- “An irrational fear or prejudice towards Islam or Muslims, which has significantly increased in the Western world since the terrorist attacks in New York on September 11, 2001.” (Human Rights in the Workplace Glossary of Terms; Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission Race Relations, Equity & Inclusion Division)
K'jipuktuk- The Mi’kmaw name for the area now referred to as Halifax.
L’nu- Mi’kmaw, meaning the people.
LGBTQIA2S+ - Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, two-spirit, plus.
Mi’kmaq and Mi’kmaw- Mi’kmaw people have lived throughout Mi’kma’ki for over 10, 000 years. There are currently 13 Mi’kmaw communities, and over 16, 000 Mi’kmaw people, throughout Nova Scotia.
“Mi’kmaq is used as a plural term for the people. Mi’kmaw is the adjectival form and is also used for a single person….The language is also Mi’kmaw.” (Mi’kmawe’l Tan Teli-kina’muemk: Teaching about the Mi’kmaq, The Mi’kmawey Debert Cultural Centre)
Mi’kmaki- The traditional territory of the Mi’kmaq, which includes Nova Scotia, PEI and large parts of New Brunswick, the Gaspé Peninsula, Newfoundland and part of Maine.
Misgender- When someone uses the wrong pronoun (for example, using the pronoun “he” when the person’s pronoun is the gender-neutral “they”) or refers to the person as the wrong gender. For transgender, non-binary, and gender diverse people, misgendering can be very hurtful and/or harmful.
Misogyny- Contempt for, or the hatred of, women, girls, and the feminine. It often refers to an entrenched belief or assumption that women are less human, worthy or deserving than men. When misogyny is considered as part of sexism, it can include social behaviours, practices and contexts that are deeply hostile to women. Also see Transmisogyny and Misogynoir.
Misogynoir- Coined by Black academic Moya Bailey to describe how misogyny and racism intersect to oppress Black women.
Mansplaining- When a man explains something and/or talks over a woman or femme in a condescending manner, often when the woman or femme knows as much or more about the subject and/or is explaining their perspective or experience.
Manspreading- When a man either deliberately or unconsciously takes up a disproportionate amount of space by spreading his legs and crowding others. This often happens on public transit and infringes on other people’s space or prevents them from being able to sit comfortably or at all.
Outing- “The act of publicly declaring (sometimes based on rumor and/or speculation) or revealing another person's sexual orientation or gender identity without that person's consent.” (GLAAD Media Reference Guide Tenth Edition)
Outing also occurs if someone shares a person's victim/survivor status without their permission.
Patriarchy- The structure of a society in which men have power over women. The unequal power relations that exist between women and men permeate all realms of society - social, legal, political, religious and economic – thereby systematically disadvantaging women as a whole. Men’s violence against women is a key element of patriarchal structure.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis- A combination of HIV drugs that can prevent contraction of HIV. Post-exposure prophylaxis must be taken within three days (72 hours) and daily for four weeks.
Pronoun- “A word that can function as a noun and refers to the participants in the discourse or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere (for example, I, he, she, they, him, her, them, ze, zir, etc.).” (A Rights Guide for Girls, Young Women & Gender Nonconforming Youth; YWCA Canada)
Queer- A term that has been reclaimed by members of the LGBTIA2S+ community to describe their sexuality and/or gender identity as being outside of, challenging, or complicating the norm. Queer can also be used as an umbrella term for LGBTIA2S+ and/or to denote a liberationist or radical politic. The word queer was previously used as a slur by homophobic and transphobic people against queer and trans people. It is not used or accepted by all LGBTQIA2S+ individuals.
Racism- A structural system of oppression and violence that privileges one race (white) over others. Racism upholds white supremacy and permeates all aspects of society - social, legal, political, economic - thereby systematically disadvantages people of colour as a whole.
Rape culture- Rape culture is a term that describes an environment where rape is pervasive, normalized and accepted as inevitable. Rape culture is largely perpetuated via unexamined and false beliefs, however, sexual violence may also be promoted in an outward, active manner.
Rape myths- Rape myths are common misconceptions about sexual violence, the people who have survived it, and those who perpetrate it.
These myths impact how victims/survivors are treated (and if they are believed) by police, media, the justice system, and friends, family, and community. Because of these myths, victims/survivors may doubt or blame themselves or fear that they will not be believed. Rape myths are misleading, harmful, and still very present in our collective thinking.
Residential schools- “The term residential schools refers to an extensive school system set up by the Canadian government and administered by churches that had the nominal objective of educating Aboriginal children but also the more damaging and equally explicit objectives of indoctrinating them into Euro-Canadian and Christian ways of living and assimilating them into mainstream Canadian society.” (The Residential School System, Indigenous Foundations, University of British Columbia)
Resilience- People’s ability to spring back after adversity and recover their strength, spirit and emotional well-being. (A) people use their strengths to protect themselves in the face of great stressors and/or oppression and build a better future for themselves and/or their community.
Revenge porn- The non-consensual sharing of sexual images with the intent of getting revenge and causing harm, usually following a rejection or break-up. 90 percent of victims/survivors of revenge porn are women.
Self-care- The process of (re-) learning how to be gentle with ourselves, listen and tend to our needs, and prioritize our physical, emotional, mental and spiritual well-being.
Sex- “with regards to bodies, it refers to a suite of sexually dimorphic traits that may include chromosomes, gonads, external genitals, other reproductive organs, ratio of sex hormones, and secondary sex characteristics. In our society, these traits are classified in a dichotomous manner as either female or male, and people are assigned a legal sex on that basis. However, variability exists in all these traits, plus these traits may not all “align” (i.e., all male, or all female) within the same person -- when this occurs, such traits (and the people who possess them) are often described as intersex.” - (Julia’s trans, gender, sexuality, & activism glossary!, Julia Serano)
Sexism- “The belief in the inherent superiority of one sex or gender over others, and thereby its
right to dominance.” (Inside The Kaleidoscope A Toolkit & Resource Guide Created by Members of Two-Spirit, Trans, & Queer Communities, Artreach)
Sext- A term that combines the words “sex” and “text” and refers to a sexual text message, which can include pictures of nude or partially nude bodies or body parts.
Sexual activity- Sexual activity includes, (but is not limited to), all sexual touch, “dirty talk”, sexting, kissing, making out, groping, fondling, masturbation, oral sex, penetrative sex, and BDSM (bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, and sadomasochism).
Sexual assault- “Any unwanted or forced sexual act committed against a person without their consent. Replaced rape as a definition in the Criminal Code in 1982.” (Glossary and Definitions, Avalon Sexual Assault Centre)
Sexual harassment- Sexual harassment is a form of sexual violence and includes sexual advances, conduct or comments that are “known or ought to reasonably to be known as unwelcome.” It can also involve “a reprisal or threat of reprisal against an individual for rejecting a sexual solicitation or advance.” (Human Rights Act, Government of Nova Scotia)
Sexual orientation- “Refers to the gender of the person(s) that someone is emotionally and
physically attracted to, i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, asexual. This is a fluid
concept, and can change once or many times over the course of an individual’s life.” (Inside The Kaleidoscope A Toolkit & Resource Guide Created by Members of Two-Spirit, Trans, & Queer Communities, Artreach)
Sexual orientation is a protected characteristic under the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act.
Sexual violence- is a broad term that describes behaviours and actions that are sexual in nature and are unwanted, coerced, and committed without consent.
Sex work / sex worker- A person who offers a sexual service and/or sex act in exchange for money, shelter, food. Differentiated from someone who has been trafficked and is coerced and/or forced to engage in sexual acts.
Sixties Scoop- “A child-welfare policy that removed Aboriginal children from their homes and placed them with non-Aboriginal families.” (Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission)
Slut-shaming- The shaming of someone due to their real or perceived sexual behavior. For example, who and how many people they “hook up” or have sex with, the kind of sex acts they engage in, what they wear, or how openly they discuss sex or their sexuality. It is used as a way to control the bodies and lives of women and femmes.
Stereotype- “A widely held but fixed generalization and (over) simplified image of a particular type of person, group of people or quality, allowing for little or no individuality or critical judgment; often, a negative belief which regards all members of a group as being the same in relation to a particular attitude or attribute.” (Human Rights in the Workplace Glossary of Terms, Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission Race Relations, Equity & Inclusion Division)
Subjugation- To bring a people into your control.
Survivor- The term “survivor” was originally used to honour women and other victims who experienced violence and survived, emphasizing strength and hope over despair. While some people find it an empowering alternative to “victim”, others do not use either because they feel that the language reduces their identity to what someone did to them. A person who has survived sexual violence gets to choose what word, if any, they want to use to describe themselves as well as the sexual violence.
Systemic oppression- refers to a series of barriers that disadvantage particular groups of people based on race, religion, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, ability, etc. Systemic oppression is often made invisible to those who don’t experience it. It is embedded in social norms and formal institutions such as the police, law, education, and health systems.
Trans- An umbrella term for “people with diverse gender identities and gender expressions that do not conform to stereotypical ideas about what it means to be a girl/woman or boy/man in society. ‘Trans’ can mean transcending beyond, existing between, or crossing over the gender spectrum.” (The 519’s Glossary of Terms)
Transgender- “Transgender is an umbrella term for persons whose gender identity/ gender expression does not conform to that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth. There is no single, typical transgender experience. There is an endless variety of transgender bodies, transgender identities, and transgender experiences.” (Carmella Farahbakhsh, South House gender justice centre)
Transmisogyny- Coined by author and activist Julia Serano to describe “describe forms of sexism that plague people on the trans female/feminine spectrum.” Serano writes: “Trans-misogyny is steeped in the assumption that femaleness and femininity are inferior to, and exist primarily for the benefit of, maleness and masculinity.” (Julia’s trans, gender, sexuality, & activism glossary! and Trans-misogyny primer, Julia Serano)
Transphobia- Fear of, or aversion to, Transgender people or the “the belief or assumption that cis people’s gender identities, expressions, experiences, and embodiments are more natural and legitimate than those of trans people.” (Julia’s trans, gender, sexuality, & activism glossary!, Julia Serano)
Treaty- “A formal agreement between two or more nations which recognizes specific rights and obligations set out within the context of the treaty.” (Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs Secretariat Inc. via Unama’ki College)
Trauma- “Trauma, by definition, is the result of exposure to an inescapably stressful event that overwhelms a person’s coping mechanism(s).” (Bessel A. van der Kolk M.D, Founder, Trauma Centre)
Trauma-informed- Trauma-informed support is about acknowledging trauma as a normal response to an overwhelming event, being aware of the prevalence and impacts of trauma, and understanding how trauma may lead to adaptive behaviours and behaviours that may be perceived as “challenging” or “difficult”.
Triggering- When something brings back a traumatic memory or memories, overwhelming feelings connected to a traumatic situation, and/or transports someone back to that situation so that they feel they are reliving it.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission- The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) began in 2007. It is part of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, which grew out of a class action lawsuit against the Canadian government. The TRC has two goals: 1) Document the experiences of survivors, families, and communities affected by Indian Residential Schools. 2) Teach all Canadians about what happened in Indian Residential Schools.
Two-Spirit or Two-Spirited- “An umbrella term in English that (1) refers to the gender constructions and roles that occur historically in many Native gender systems that are outside of colonial gender binaries and (2) refers to contemporary Native people who are continuing and/or reclaiming these roles within their communities….Not all queer Native people identify as two-spirit or see their sexualities and genders as connected to two-spirit histories in their communities, just as many people who identify as two-spirit or with tribally specific terms do not identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or queer. Still others identify as both GLBTQ and two-spirit but see these identities as inhabiting different social and cultural spheres, and many people shift between labels and terms depending on their contexts.” (Sovereign Erotics: A Collection of Two Spirit Literature, Edited by Qwo-Li Driskill; Daniel Heath Justice; Deborah Miranda, and Lisa Tatonetti).
Vicarious trauma- refers to the cumulative changes in people’s psychological, spiritual and physical well-being that can happen over time as helpers care for others who are suffering or traumatized.
Victim- is often used to refer to a person who has been sexually assaulted, particularly in law enforcement where people are considered to be victims of a crime. The term signals that a person has been violated against their will by someone else. However, some people choose not to use “victim” because it can contribute to a sense of powerlessness and a feeling of being defined by an act of violence.
Victim blaming - Unfortunately, victims/survivors are often held wholly or partially responsible for the sexual violence, which is called victim blaming. Victim blaming is more common for victim/survivors of sexual violence than it is for those of other crimes.
Xenophobia- “Attitudes, prejudices and behaviour that reject, exclude and often vilify persons, based on the perception that they are outsiders or foreigners to the community, society or national identity."
(Declaration on Racism, discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance against Migrants and Trafficked Persons; Asia-Pacific NGO Meeting for the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.)
The 519 agency, The 519’s Glossary of Terms, facilitating shared understandings around equity, diversity, inclusion and awareness
Artreach, Inside The Kaleidoscope A Toolkit & Resource Guide Created by Members of Two-Spirit, Trans, & Queer Communities (Prepared by John Caffery, Kusha Amir Dadui, and Kim Katrin Milan)
Asia-Pacific NGO Meeting for the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance. Teheran, Iran, February 2001; Declaration on Racism, discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance against Migrants and Trafficked Persons
Atlantic Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs Secretariat Inc., Treaties, via Unama’ki College
Avalon Sexual Assault Centre, Glossary and Definitions
Bessel A. van der Kolk M.D; Founder, Trauma Centre
Carmella Farahbakhsh, South House Gender Justice Centre
Qwo-Li Driskill; Daniel Heath Justice; Deborah Miranda, and Lisa Tatonetti; Sovereign Erotics: A Collection of Two Spirit Literature
GLAAD, GLAAD Media Reference Guide Tenth Edition
Government of Canada, Criminal Code
Human Rights Act, Government of Nova Scotia
Indigenous Foundations, University of British Columbia; The Residential School System
Emma LaRocque for National Film Board, Colonization and Racism
Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward Island, Creating an Inclusive School Climate for Aboriginal Learners The Mi’kmawey Debert Cultural Centre, Mi’kmawe’l Tan Teli-kina’muemk: Teaching about the Mi’kmaq
National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health; Aboriginal Peoples and Historic Trauma, National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission Race Relations, Equity & Inclusion Division
The Oxford English Dictionary
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
West Coast LEAF, #CyberMisogyny report
YWCA Canada; A Rights Guide for Girls, Young Women & Gender Nonconforming Youth